for mollisioid Dermateaceae

This private, provisional key is to bee seen as a working aide and it is far from being ready for publication. It may be used for private porpose without restrictions, but shall not be cited in publications. It comprises nearly only species examined by myself, so there will certainly be several species missing. On the other hand many of the collections titled with provisional names will be identified with taxa already published.

with provisional inclusion of some of the species created by SVRCEK (SVR) and LEGAL (GAL), which had in most cases to be keyed out KOH+ as well as KOH- because of missing descriptions. They all have not been examined by me.

IKI = Iod-Kalium-Iodid (Lugols solution):
bb = blue ; rr = red ; rb = hemiamyloid (red, but in higher concentrations of Iod blue) ; - = negativ
oil = total content of oil-drops in the spore:
0 = without oil-content ; 1 = appr. 3% of the volume of the spore consists of oil-drops ; 2 = appr. 10% ; 3 = appr. 25% ; 4 = appr. 50% ; 5 = appr. 80%
KOH = lemon yellow, very rarely otherwise coloured reaction of the content of the paraphyses when getting in contact with KOH 3%; reaction may be weak or strong, only for seconds or permanent. Weak reactions can normaly only be observed with fresh material, but a strong reaction (e.g. in M. rosae) has proved to be still visible even in 130 year old specimens.
When working with exsiccates: no reaction with KOH is not a clear statement, but if the reaction is positive (yellow) it is always a good feature.
Unless stated otherwise, all details and measurements are from living collections observed in water. Exsiccates were studied in KOH 3% except for proving the ascus-reaction.
Names underlined: Own collections have been made, or at least own revisions of exsiccates.

1. On wood, bark (incl. Erica, Vaccinum) 2
1* On remnants of herbs (inkl. Rubus) 50
1** On remnants of grasses 70
1*** On leaves of trees or shrubs incl. Rubus (leaves of herbs and grasses: 1* or 1**) 120
1**** On mosses 140
2. Ascus reaction rr 3
2* Ascus reaction bb 5
2** Ascus reaction negativ 45
2*** Ascus reaction rb, margin cells conspicious, 35-100 Ám, hyaline, KOH negative, Sp. 8-14 x 2,8-3,5 Ám, underneath rotten Quercus logs in winter M. elegantior
3. Sp. 7-10 x 2,5-3,2 Ám, growing ▒ submers, marginal cells inconspicuous M. "dextrinoidea"
3* Sp. 9-12 x 2,2-3 Ám, not submers M. „Malaval“
5. Subhymenium (text. intr.) built of brownish and loosely arranged hyphae (at least in mature apo., needs sometimes several preparations), sp. 6-13 x 2,5-3,3 Ám, oil 0(+), KOH- M. lividofusca
(when spores 20-28 µm long: see 40*)
According to LEGAL & MANGENOT, M. fallax could be distinguished by flat, discinoid apothecia, smooth excipulum and shorter spores with oil drops.
5* Subhymenium built of hyaline hyphae 7
7. Marginal cells very conspicuous, evidently > 50 Ám, blackish-brown and mostly encrusted and KOH-reaction always strongly lemon-yellow. 8
7* Marginal cells less conspicuous, KOH-reaction yellow or negative 10
8. Sp. 6-9 x 2-2,8 Ám, oil 2(+), asci without croziers M. rosae
8* Sp. 9-14 x 2,2-3 Ám, oil 3-4, asci with croziers, on Prunus spinosa M. prunicola
8** Sp. 6-12,5 x 1,8-2,5 Ám, oil 0, asci with croziers, apo. up to 7 mm diam., semihypogaeic on rotten Quercus truncs (often together with Dasyscyphella nivea) M. perelegans
10. KOH-reaction ▒ distinctly yellow 12
10* KOH-reaction negative 20
GAL: KOH unknown, spores (8)10-23,5 x 1,5-2,5 Ám, oil unknown, probably appr. 2, medulla built of parallel, densly woven hyphae M. caesia
12. Oil 2-3(4) (compare also 7 u. 7*) 15
12* Oil 0-1 17
12** Oil either 1 (many very tiny droplets) or 1,5-2 (several bigger drops), if 1 then IKI bb 3, if 1,5-2 than IKI bb 1-2, apo. shortly (blackish) stipitate M. perparvula
Two specimens in H (PAK 2922, 2930) are identical according to HUHTINEN, but seem to be clearly distinct to me.
15. Sp. 13-18(20) x 3,5-4,2 Ám, outside the ascus with 1-3 septae (exs.) M. ulicis (ss. PRIOU)
15* Sp. more narrow and shorter, even when mature with max. 1 septum 16
16. Sp. (9?)10-15 x 2,2-3,2 Ám, Q > 4 (in average), apo. ▒ patellate, cup-shaped, generally blueish-grey, subicular hyphae up to 6 Ám broad M. fusca
16* Sp. idem, but oil only 1-2, marginal cells greybrown and quite conspicuous, growing only in spring, on Fagus-cupules (sometimes on small twigs), often together with Brunnipila fuscescens, Capitotricha fagiseda und Lachnum virgineum M."fagicola"
SVR: Sp. 10-15 x 3,5-4,5 Ám, oil 1-2: small drops accumulated in the polar ends of the spore, marginal cells long, KOH perhaps positve
M. sericeomarginata
17. Sp. 2-3 µm broad 18
17* Sp. more then 3 µm broad 19
18. Sp. 6-8(9) x 2-2,8 µm, oil 0-1 M. "pyrenopezizoides"
On Rubus idaeus, without croziers compare M. alcalireagens Svrcek
18* Sp. 8-12,5 x 2,2-3 Ám, oil 0+, hymenium and margo white, very moistened slightly greyish, on Prunus spinosa and Crataegus M. "albogrisea"
18** Sp. 7-10 x 1,5-2,2 Ám, oil ca. 1, hymenium bluish-grey, with conspicuous blackish margo, marginal cells conspicuous, on cones of Pinus M. "neffii"
18*** Sp. 7,5-10 x 2,2-2,8 Ám, oil 1, apo. small, watery greyish, ash-grey, without clearly visible margo, textura ▒ angularis (to be checked!), exc. not up to margo brownish, on Picea, Larix-Zapfen, Prunus M. "conifericola"
Identical seems to be PAK 4398: M. leucostigma (with ä?ô), but spores 11-13 x 2-2,2 Ám (already germinating) and margo more conspicuous. FUCKELs N. leucostigma has totally different spores and a darker margo!
19. Sp. 9-12 x 3-4 Ám, Q 2,6-3,8, apo. cushion-like, chalk-white, sometimes with a slight greyish hue, without subiculum, always submers M. uda
The original diagnosis of M. uda by Persoon is obviousely quite different from this species which which therefor will be published with a new name (M. pulviniformis nov. spec. ined., in prep.) According to M. NAUTA (in litt.) no authentic material is left in L.
19* Sp. 8-14 x 3,3-4,2 Ám, amyloid-ring (porus) T-shaped, ect. Exc. very thick (according to BARAL) M. sericeomarginata
SVR: KOH-Reaktion yellow ???, Sp. 10-15 x 3,5-4,5 Ám, oil 1 (and more?), Apo. not submers M. sericeomarginata
20. Sp. already in the ascus 1-3-septated, 10-16 x 3,2-4,5 Ám, oil 0, in IKI with weakly red sheath (?), on thick blackish subiculum M. "karkanoszeae"
further collections by H.O. BARAL from Spain and ThŘringen.
20* Sp. already in the ascus 1-septated, 10-16 x 3-3,5 Ám, oil 0,5-1, without subiculum M. "septispora"
20** Ejected sp. always with septae, oil >2,5 21
20*** Ejected sp. not with septae (or rarely when overmature, before germinating) 23
21. Sp. 33-56 x 2,5-4 Ám, 4-celled, oil 2-3, hymenium opalescent blueish, on Calluna-roots at the base of dying plants, subhypogaeic Belonopsis obscura
21* Sp. 11-18 x 2,5-3,5, 0-2-4-celled, oil 4-5, hymenium olive-greenish, drying yellowish (like mustard), usually growing in very wet places, sometimes submers M. ventosa
23. Cells of the ect. exc. only at the apo-base brownish (apo. adhered ▒ punctiform ) 24
23* Cells of the ect. exc. ▒ up to the margo brownish coloured 27
24. Apo. watery-grey, breaking through the cortex in fascicles, sp. 8-12 x 2-3, oil 2 (always?) M. benesuada
Many quite similar specimens have been observed and the problem in delimitation of the speices seem to be following two points: Is the ect. exc. always (sub)hyaline and must M. benesuada grow fasciculated?
24* Apo. amber-coloured, singly growing, sp. 8,5-11 x 2-2,5, oil 0, IKI bb 1(-2), on Rubus idaeus M. "amberina"
Provisional species of H.O. BARAL
24** Sp. 5-9(10) x 1,5-2,5 Ám, cells of the ect. Exc. only ochraceous, often some coloured cells up to the margo, exclusive on Alnus-cones M. amenticola
27. oil content 0(+) 30
27* oil content appr. 2 35
27** oil content 3-4+ 40
GAL: Oil unknown, probably appr. 2, sp. (8)10-23,5 x 1,5-2,5 Ám, medulla built of parallel, dense hyphae, KOH unknown M. caesia
GAL: Oil unknown, probably <1, sp. 6-10(11) x 1-1,7 Ám M. cinereo-olivascens
30. Sp. 5-9(10) x 1,5-2,5 Ám, ekt. exc. only ochreous, on Alnus-cones M. amenticola
30* Ect. Exc. darker brown 31
31. On cones of conifers, Sp. 6-14 x 2-3,2 Ám, subhymenium always hyaline M. strobilicola
doubtful species and never found by me! All collections labelled M. strobilicola have been found to be identical with M. lividofusca (see 5.), because of the coloured subhymenium.
31* host otherwise 32
32. sp. usually not exceeding 10 Ám, at least in average 33
32* sp. usually not < 10 Ám, at least in average 34
SVR: sp. 8,5-12 x 1,7-2 Ám [dead?], oil <1: tiny guttules in every end, apo. greish-white, thick, submers in mountain rivulets, on Fagus M. rivularis
A collection by H.O. BARAL und own findings showed sometimes blue-greyish apothecia.
Type is being examined at the moment

33. sp. 7-12 x 2,5-3 Ám, on wood, marginal cells not conspicuous M. cinerea
33* sp. 7,5-9 x 1,8-2 Ám on Rubus-cains (exclusively?), marginal cells long and conspicuous, with clavate last cell, paraphyses sublanceolate M. clavata
SVR: Sp. 5,5-10 x 2 Ám [NH4OH], oil 0, excipulum with olive-greenish colour (al least in NH4OH) M. olivaceo-cinerea
Coll. JPP9851 (PRIOU) keyed out here and belongs probably to the M. atrata complex.
GAL: sp. 6-8,7-10(12) x 1,5-2 Ám (exs., in BWB). KOH unknown M. cinerella Sacc.
GAL: sp. (5)6-8-10(11) x 1,7-2,2 Ám (exs. in BWB). KOH unknown M. undulato-depressula
34. Auf Picea abiesOn Picea abies, sp. 9-14 x 2,5-3 Ám, hymenium blueish-grey, with strong blackish subiculum M. "subcinerella"
several collections made by LAGERSTRÍM in H sub M. melaleucoides could be identical. Sp. 8,5-12 x 2-3 Ám, oil 0-0,5(1), marginal cells hyaline at the margo and very long (up to 60 Ám), below the Margo vesicular, brownish.
M. melaleucoides ss. KARSTEN is M. lividofusca.

34* sp. 12-16 x 2,5-3 Ám, oil 0-0,5, marginal hairs long and claviform, hence the margo delicately ciliate (KOH perhaps +, collection overmature) M. cf. villosa
Fund JPP 9852 (PRIOU) keys out here, but has a different Aufbau (medullary exc. lacking) as 34* and reminds a äHaglundiaô.
SVR: On decorticated coniferous wood, sp. 7-12(15) x 3-3,5 Ám [dead], oil 0 or with one small droplet in each end, with blackish granulae in the hymenium when mounted in Melzerĺs reagens M. ponticulorum
35. Sp. 9-16(19) x 2,5-3,2 Ám, with two big drops in each end (+ sometimes few more smaller drops, hymenium light ochraceous, never (?) grey or blackish, corticol (always?) M. discolor
How to classify collections with spores only up to 11(12) Ám ???
35* Sp. 8-12 x 2,8-3,5 Ám, oil 2, with several not too big drops, hymenium whitish, at most pale creme-coloured, mainly occuring in spring (?) M. melaleuca
35** Sp. 12-15 x 3, oil 3, germinating by conidia, on wood, with ▒ rich subiculum (according to H.O. BARAL) M. cinerella
40. Sp. 12-15 x 2,3-2,8 Ám, oil 4, hymenium blueish-grey, on Vaccinium uliginosum (according to H.O. BARAL) M. "vacinii"
40* Sp. 20-28 x 2,5-3,2 Ám, oil 5, hymenium ochraceous, always (?) with cristals in the medulla, subhymenium generally with ochraceous hyphae M. ramealis
40** Sp. 11-18 x 2,5-3,5 Ám, oil 4-5, hymenium olivaceous-greenish, drying ochre-yellowish (like mustard) sp. mature (only overmature?) often with 1(-3) septae M. ventosa
45. Sp. 35-49 x 2,2-3 Ám, up to 8-celled, on Erica arborea M. ericae
45* sp. shorter and without septae 46
46. sp. 2-3 µm broad 47
46* sp. 1,2-2 µm broad 48
47. marginal cells (dark) brown, 2-4-celled, end cell ▒ clavate, apo. drought-resistent, not fasciculate, sp. 6-10 x 2-3 Ám, oil 1(+) M. ligni
47* marginal cells subhyalin, end cells nearly cylindrical, apo. fasciculate, sp. (7)8-10(12) x 2,2- 3 Ám . oil 1(-2) M. depressula
concept is based on M. depressula/inexula (PAK 4373). To be verified which name is to be used. A recent collection made by STAUB seems identical in all respects.
SVR: SVR: Sp. 7-9 x 2,5-3 Ám [living], generally septated, oil ca. 1 (biguttulate), globose cells yellow coloured and this pigment soluble, apo. olive(yellowish-)greenish M. viridula
perhaps only an overmature collection of ... ???
48. Sp. 5-6,8 x 1,2-1,8 Ám, apothecia fasciculate, on ?stromatised wood M. caespiticia
48* Sp. 3,5-5,5 x 1,2-1,8 Ám (PAK 4406: 5-7,5 x 1,8-2,2, if identical?), apo. not fasciculate, marginal cells ▒ conspicuous, subhyaline, KOH - M. sublividula (PAK 4408)
in PAK (H) are 3 collections of M. sublividula, one of them is a Cistella spec., the other two are not clearly identical.

50. oil content of sp. 2 51
50* oil content of sp. 0-1 56
51. Sp. 11-13 x 1,5-2 Ám, oil 2-3, consisting of small droplets, on Eupatorium and Senecio fuchsii M. coerulans
51* Sp. broader than 2 Ám and x or shorter then 11 Ám 52
52. 52 KOH-reaction clearly yellow, sp. 8-11 x 1,8-2,5 (exs.), oil 2-3, apo. without cristals M. cf. polygoni
52* KOH-reaction negative 53
53. Sp. 8-11 x 1,8-2,2 (exs.), oil 2-3, consisting of small droplets, on Polygonum M. polygoni
Fund WU 8580: Sp. 7-10 x 1,8-2,2 (exs.), oil 3+, consisting of few bigger, confluent drops.
53* sp. > 14 µm 54
54. Sp. 14-19 x 2-2,5(3) Ám, oil 2-3, consisting of small and bigger drops, on Solidago virgaurea M. "solidaginis"
54* Sp. 17-23 x 3-4 Ám (Exs.!), oil 2-3, consisting of small droplets, on Petasites M. solidaginis (ss. Br/Kr)
56. marginal cells inconspicuous, without remarkable features 57
56* marginal cells somehow remarkable, conspicuous 60
57. Sp. 6-11 x 1,5-2,2 Ám, oil 1(+), few small droplets in one ore both ends, KOH indistictly + (dissolving quickly) M. revincta
57* Sp. same, oil 1(-), KOH absolute negativ (?), only on Filipendula (?) M. ?revincta 54
57 und 57* sind höchstwarscheinlich konspezifisch.
SVR: SVR: reaction with NH4OH und KOH 10% strongly yellow, sp. 6-9 x 1,5-2 Ám [living?], oil 0,5-1: tiny droplets in one end (also in both?), ends of the spore rounded, on Rubus (only?) M. alcalireagens
differences to M. äpyrenopezizoidesô ? (see 18.)
60. Sp. 8,5-11 x 2-2,5 Ám, oil 0 (?), apo. diam. up to 3 mm, marginal cells often utriform (constant feature?), KOH - M. adenostylidis
60* sp. 7,5-9 x 1,8-2 Ám on Rubus-cains (exclusively?), marginal cells long and conspicuous, with clavate last cell M. clavata
SVR: Sp. 5-8 x 1,3-1,5 Ám, oil ca. 1: biguttulate, KOH ???, marginal cells hyalin, conspicuousely long, 1-2-celled M. potentillae-erectae
most probably a Pyrenopeziza species
SVR: NH4OH-reaction yellow, sp. 5-7 x 1,8 dead?], apo. yellow when bruising, margo ciliate, marginal cells conspicuous and partly granulate (?), upper part of the hymenium with amyloid granula M. flavescens

70. Hymenium and medulla with lilac reaction when adding KOH, sp. 6-9 x 1,2-1,8 Ám, hymenium fresh orange, on Zea mais M. "aurantioviolascens"
Only one collection (J.-P. PRIOU). Same reaction as in Scutomollisia russea und Sc. purpurea, but no scutum and much smaller spores.
RAITVIIR (in litt.) is already planning a description as nov. spec. on a collection sent to him by F. CANDOUSSEAU from Phyllistachys (bamboo).
70* no violet reaction when adding KOH 80
80. On Phragmites communis 81
80* On other grasses 85
81. apo. with big masses of cristals in the ent. Exc. and the medulla 82
81* apo. without cristals 84
82. Sp. (2-)4-celled, 26-31 x 3-4 Ám (from exs.) M. mediella
Exs. Vestergren 1764 (= Trichobelonium distinguendum Sydow)
82* Sp. 1(-2) celled, shorter and narrower 83
83. Sp. 15-24(29) x 2,5-3,2 Ám, oil 3(+), hymenium yellow(ish), drying orange-ochraceous, Apo. ▒ pulvinat, up to 6 mm diam., thick, KOH-reaktion yellow (always? not in exs.?) M. retincola
83* Sp. 8-12(15) x 2,2-3,2 Ám, oil 1-2, hymenium grey, blackish-grey, apo. ▒ flat, patelliform, KOH-Reaktion only in fresh collections short but distinctly yellow, in overmature or dried collections normally not longer visible, marginal cells vesiculare, inconspicuous M. hydrophila
also collections without any trace of subicular hyphae and/or cristals and/or slightly smaller and narrower spores (transition vs. M. palustris-group?).
identical is M. epitypha Karsten.
84. Sp. 6,5-8,5 x (1)1,2-1,5 Ám, oil 0,5-1, consisting of 1 small and a few very tiny droplets, scattered through the whole spore (exsiccate, living too?), marginal cells conspicuous, big, brwonish up to the margo, end cells claviform, 15-22 x 5-8 Ám M. evilescens (type)
identical is M. simillima Karsten.
84* Sp. 6,5-8,5 x 1,8-2,2 Ám, oil 0-1 (few tiny droplets), marginal cells subhyaline, vesiculare, up to ca. 10 x 8 Ám (growing on Phragmites to verify) M. palustris (type)
The problems within this complex are big: on the one hand the types are quite distinct, on the other hand are recent findings of these äspeciesô not too rare and the hiatus between the types disappeares. Until now I have seen only one or two recent collection which corresponds to the type of M. evilescens appr. 100%, but many collections which have to be located between M. evilescens and M. palustris.
LE GAL & MANGENOT describe a (lecto-)type of M. palustris, which probably belongs better to M. evilescens (small spores, marginal cells)
85. Sp. 4-5,5 x 1 Ám, paraphyses 3,5 Ám, slightly broader than the asci, KOH+ M. caricina
85* Paraphyses narrower then the asci and/or sp. otherwise 86
86. Sp. multiseptate in turgescent asci 88
86* Sp. not septate, except sometimes before germinating and then not in living asci 100
85. ascus pore red in IKI 90
85* ascus pore blue in IKI 95
90. In mature, turgeszent asci sp. 4-6-celled, 30-42 x 4,3-5,2 Ám (acc. to H.O. BARAL) Niptera pulla
Exs. JAKLITSCH: sp. 27-34 x 4,5-5,2 Ám
90* In mature, turgeszent asci sp. 2-4-celled, < 4,2 Ám broad 92
92. Sp. (25)30-40 x 3-4 Ám, (2)4-celled, constricted at the septae, asci up to 160 Ám long, ect. Exc. dark brown Niptera pilosa
92* Sp. 36-46 x 2,5-3,5 Ám, 4-celled, not constricted at the septae, asci up to 80-90 Ám long, acc. to H.O. BARAL ect. Exc. ochraceous Niptera filispora
95. without croziers, sp. 47-53 x 3,5-4 Ám, oil 4,5-5, KOH negative Belonium asteroma
95* asci with croziers and/or sp. smaller 96
96. Sp. 17-21 x 5-5,5 Ám, ciborioid, with IKI sporewall red (but no gelified sheath!), KOH strong yellow Niptera lacustris
96* KOH-Reaktion negative, sp. without red reaction in IKI 97
97. sp. 16-17 x 2,5-3 Ám, oil 3, KOH negativ Niptera submelaena
97* sp. 18-22 x 5-7,5 µm, long elliptical, with 1 thick septum already in living ascus, oil 2, paraphyses filiform and +/- forked Nimbomollisia eriophori
100. ascus pore IKI rr, sp. 12-16 x 2-2,2 Ám (Exs.!), oil 2-3, KOH -, anchoring hyphae 1,5-2,5 Ám broad M. spec.006
100* IKI negativ, medulla with cristals, KOH strong yellow, sp. 14-17 x 2,8-3 Ám (2nd collection 19-24 x 2,5-3,2 Ám) M. phalaridis
100** ascus pore blue in IKI 101
101. KOH + (only fresh ?!), sp. 8-12(15) x 2,2-3,2 Ám, oil 0,5-1(2), with cristals M. hydrophila
Identical is M. epithypha Karsten.
SVR: NH4OH+, sp. 6,5-10 x 1,5-1,8 Ám [dead], slightly scutuloid, oil 0 M. citrinopigmentosa
SVR: sp. 6-7,5 x 1,5-2 [dead], oil 0, with amyloid granula in the hymenium (probably KOH-) M. amyloidea
SVR: sp. 6,5-10,5 x 2 [living], oil 0 (probably KOH-) M. epityphicola
101* No cristals, KOH-reaction negative or spores smaller and narrower 103
103. sSp. 12-20 x 2,5-3,5 µm M. spec.
This is M. palustris in the provisional key by H.O. BARAL 1990
103* sp. smaller 105
105. sp. 7-10(11) x 1,5-2,2 µm, KOH negative M. palustris
non ss. LE GAL & MANGENOT ???
SVR: Sp. 6,5-10,5 x 2 [living], slightly scutuloid, oil 0 M. epityphicola
SVR: sp. 5-12 x 2-2,5 Ám [dead], oil 0, with a covering of amyloid granula over the hymenium M. variabilispora
SVR: sp. 6-7,5 x 1,5-2 [dead], oil 0, with amyloid granula in the upper part of the hymenium M. amyloidea
105* sp. 4-8 x 1-1,3, KOH-reaction yellow, paraphyses as broad as the asci M. caricina
105** Sp. 9,5-11 x 2-2,8 Ám, KOH -, oil 1-2, ect. Exc. a dark text. prismatica) M. juncina (ss. Br/Kr)
most probably not a Mollisia ss.str.

120. marginal cells inconspicous, not agglutinated to triangels M. rabenhorstii

marginal cells triangular agglutinated, very conspicuous, brownish

M. lithocarpi

140. --- ---
SVR: Sp. 13-16 x 2,5-3,5 Ám, septate (in the ascus?), KOH-reaction unknown, marginal cells subglobos and with brownish incrustations, asci IKI bb, on living mosses M. polytrichicola